• Principal Investigator
  • Female

Dr. M.M.G. Leeflang

Position: Scientific staff member (UD)
Main activities: Research, Teaching
Specialisation: Systematic reviews, Research Methodology, Meta-analyses
foto M.M.G. Leeflang is one of the AMC Principal Investigators
Focus of research:

Methodology of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic tests.

AMC themes: Public Health & Epidemiology
Departments: Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics
Bruning AHL, Leeflang MMG, Vos JMBW, Spijker R, de Jong MD, Wolthers KC, Pajkrt D, Rapid Tests for Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial Virus, and Other Respiratory Viruses: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. CLIN INFECT DIS 2017;65 (6):1026-1032 [PubMed]
Bruning AHL, Leeflang MMG, Wolthers KC, Pajkrt D, Reply to Vos et al. CLIN INFECT DIS 2017;ahead of print [PubMed]
de Vries EM, Wang J, Williamson KD, Leeflang MM, Boonstra K, Weersma RK, Beuers U, Chapman RW, Geskus RB, Ponsioen CY, A novel prognostic model for transplant-free survival in primary sclerosing cholangitis. GUT 2017;ahead of print [PubMed]
Kadouch DJ, Elshot YS, Zupan-Kajcovski B, van Haersma de With ASE, van der Wal AC, Leeflang M, Jóźwiak K, Wolkerstorfer A, Bekkenk MW, Spuls PI, de Rie MA, One-stop-shop with confocal microscopy imaging vs. standard care for surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma: an open-label, noninferiority, randomized controlled multicentre trial. BRIT J DERMATOL 2017;177 (3):735-741 [PubMed]
Kadouch DJ, Leeflang MM, Elshot YS, Longo C, Ulrich M, van der Wal AC, Wolkerstorfer A, Bekkenk MW, de Rie MA, Diagnostic accuracy of confocal microscopy imaging vs. punch biopsy for diagnosing and subtyping basal cell carcinoma. J EUR ACAD DERMATOL 2017;ahead of print [PubMed]
McGrath TA, McInnes MDF, van Es N, Leeflang MMG, Korevaar DA, Bossuyt PMM, Overinterpretation of Research Findings: Evidence of "Spin" in Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. CLIN CHEM 2017;63 (8):1353-1362 [PubMed]
Nieuwenhuis LL, Hermans FJR, Bij de Vaate AJM, Leeflang MMG, Brölmann HAM, Hehenkamp WJK, Mol BWJ, Clark TJ, Huirne JAF, Three-dimensional saline infusion sonography compared to two-dimensional saline infusion sonography for the diagnosis of focal intracavitary lesions. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2017;2017 (5):CD011126 [PubMed]
Pammi M, Flores A, Versalovic J, Leeflang MM, Molecular assays for the diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2017;2 (2):CD011926 [PubMed]
van Mens TE, Scheres LJ, de Jong PG, Leeflang MM, Nijkeuter M, Middeldorp S, Imaging for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2017;2017 (1):CD011053 [PubMed]
Wang J. Evaluating medical tests and biomarkers: In primary studies and systematic reviews. S.l.: s.n.; 2017. 280p. ISBN 978-94-6295-744-2 [UvA Dissertations Online] Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam. (Promotor(s): Bossuyt PMM, Zwinderman AH; copromotor(s): Leeflang MMG, Geskus RB)
Cherpanath TGV, Hirsch A, Geerts BF, Lagrand WK, Leeflang MM, Schultz MJ, Groeneveld ABJ, Predicting Fluid Responsiveness by Passive Leg Raising: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 23 Clinical Trials. CRIT CARE MED 2016;44 (5):981-991 [PubMed]
Cohen JF, Korevaar DA, Wang J, Leeflang MM, Bossuyt PM, Meta-epidemiologic study showed frequent time trends in summary estimates from meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2016;77:60-67 [PubMed]
de Vries EMG, Wang J, Leeflang MMG, Boonstra K, Weersma RK, Beuers UH, Geskus RB, Ponsioen CY, Alkaline phosphatase at diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and 1 year later: evaluation of prognostic value. LIVER INT 2016;36 (12):1867-1875 [PubMed]
Gopalakrishna G. Interpreting the evidence-base for making recommendations on medical tests. S.l.: s.n.; 2016. 241p. ISBN 978-94-028-0312-9 [UvA Dissertations Online] Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam. (Promotor(s): Bossuyt PMM, Scholten RJPM; copromotor(s): Leeflang MMG, Langendam MW)
Gopalakrishna G, Langendam MW, Scholten RJPM, Bossuyt PMM, Leeflang MMG, Defining the clinical pathway in cochrane diagnostic test accuracy reviews. BMC MED RES METHODOL 2016;16 (1):153 [PubMed]
Gopalakrishna G, Leeflang MMG, Davenport C, Sanabria AJ, Alonso-Coello P, McCaffery K, Bossuyt P, Langendam MW, Barriers to making recommendations about medical tests: a qualitative study of European guideline developers. BMJ OPEN 2016;6 (9):e010549 [PubMed]
Launay E, Cohen JF, Bossuyt PM, Buekens P, Deeks J, Dye T, Feltbower R, Ferrari A, Kramer M, Leeflang M, Moher D, Moons KG, von Elm E, Ravaud P, Chalumeau M, Reporting studies on time to diagnosis: proposal of a guideline by an international panel (REST). BMC MED 2016;14 (1):146 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Ang CW, Berkhout J, Bijlmer HA, van Bortel W, Brandenburg AH, van Burgel ND, van Dam AP, Dessau RB, Fingerle V, Hovius JWR, Jaulhac B, Meijer B, van Pelt W, Schellekens JFP, Spijker R, Stelma FF, Stanek G, Verduyn-Lunel F, Zeller H, Sprong H, The diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for Lyme borreliosis in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC INFECT DIS 2016;16 (1):140 [PubMed]
Naaktgeboren CA, Ochodo EA, van Enst WA, de Groot JAH, Hooft L, Leeflang MMG, Bossuyt PM, Moons KGM, Reitsma JB, Assessing variability in results in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies. BMC MED RES METHODOL 2016;16 (1):6 [PubMed]
Roekevisch E, Leeflang MMG, Schram ME, Campbell LE, Irwin McLean WH, Kezic S, Bos JD, Spuls PI, Middelkamp-Hup MA, Atopic dermatitis patients with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations show good but lower responses to immunosuppressive treatment. BRIT J DERMATOL 2016;-:- [PubMed]
Roth JM, Korevaar DA, Leeflang MMG, Mens PF, Molecular malaria diagnostics: A systematic review and meta-analysis. CRIT REV CL LAB SCI 2016;53 (2):87-105 [PubMed]
Schünemann HJ, Mustafa R, Brozek J, Santesso N, Alonso-Coello P, Guyatt G, Scholten R, Langendam M, Leeflang MM, Akl EA, Singh JA, Meerpohl J, Hultcrantz M, Bossuyt P, Oxman AD [Contributors: Schünemann HJ, Mustafa R, Brozek J, Santesso N, Alonso-Coello P, Scholten R, Langendam M, Bossuyt P, Leeflang MM, Akl EA, Singh J, Meerpohl J, Hultcrantz M, Guyatt G, Oxman AD, Lange S, Parmelli E, Moberg J, Rosenbaum S, Brignardello-Petersen R, Wiercioch W, Davoli M, Nowak A, Dietl B]] , GRADE Guidelines: 16. GRADE evidence to decision frameworks for tests in clinical practice and public health. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2016;76:89-98 [PubMed]
Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig L, Lijmer JG, Moher D, Rennie D, de Vet HCW, Kressel HY, Rifai N, Golub RM, Altman DG, Hooft L, Korevaar DA, Cohen JF [Contributors: Alonzo T, Altman DG, Azuara-Blanco A, Bachmann L, Blume J, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Bruns D, Büller H, Buntinx F, Byron S, Chang S, Cohen JF, Cooper R, de Groot J, de Vet HCW, Deeks J, Dendukuri N, Dinnes J, Fleming K, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Golub RM, Guyatt G, Heneghan C, Hilden J, Hooft L, Horvath R, Hunink M, Hyde C, Ioannidis J, Irwig L, Janes H, Kleijnen J, Knottnerus A, Korevaar DA, Kressel HY, Lange S, Leeflang M, Lijmer JG, Lord S, Lumbreras B, Macaskill P, Magid E, Mallett S, McInnes M, McNeil B, McQueen M, Moher D, Moons K, Morris K, Mustafa R, Obuchowski N, Ochodo E, Onderdonk A, Overbeke J, Pai N, Peeling R, Pepe M, Petersen S, Price C, Ravaud P, Reitsma JB, Rennie D, Rifai N, Rutjes A, Schunemann H, Simel D, Simera I, Smidt N, Steyerberg E, Straus S, Summerskill W, Takwoingi Y, Thompson M, van de Bruel A, van Maanen H, Vickers A, Virgili G, Walter S, Weber W, Westwood M, Whiting P, Wilczynski N, Ziegler A]] , STARD 2015: An Updated List of Essential Items for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. CLIN CHEM 2015;61 (12):1446-1452 [PubMed]
Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig L, Lijmer JG, Moher D, Rennie D, de Vet HCW, Kressel HY, Rifai N, Golub RM, Altman DG, Hooft L, Korevaar DA, Cohen JF [Contributors: Alonzo T, Altman DG, Azuara-Blanco A, Bachmann L, Blume J, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Bruns D, Büller H, Buntinx F, Byron S, Chang S, Cohen JF, de Groot RCJ, de Vet HCW, Deeks J, Dendukuri N, Dinnes J, Fleming K, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Golub RM, Guyatt G, Heneghan C, Hilden J, Hooft L, Horvath R, Hunink M, Hyde C, Ioannidis J, Irwig L, Janes H, Kleijnen J, Knottnerus A, Korevaar DA, Kressel HY, Lange S, Leeflang M, Lijmer JG, Lord S, Lumbreras B, Macaskill P, Magid E, Mallett S, McInnes M, Mc-Neil B, McQueen M, Moher D, Moons K, Morris K, Mustafa R, Obuchowski N, Ochodo E, Onderdonk A, Overbeke J, Pai N, Peeling R, Pepe M, Petersen S, Price C, Ravaud P, Reitsma JB, Rennie D, Rifai N, Rutjes A, Schunemann H, Simel D, Simera I, Smidt N, Steyerberg E, Straus S, Summerskill W, Takwoingi Y, Thompson M, van de Bruel A, van Maanen H, Vickers A, Virgili G, Walter S, Weber W, Westwood M, Whiting P, Wilczynski N, Ziegler A]] , STARD 2015: An Updated List of Essential Items for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. RADIOLOGY 2015;277 (3):826-832 [PubMed]
Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig L, Lijmer JG, Moher D, Rennie D, de Vet HCW, Kressel HY, Rifai N, Golub RM, Altman DG, Hooft L, Korevaar DA, Cohen JF [Contributors: Alonzo T, Altman DG, Azuara-Blanco A, Bachmann L, Blume J, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Bruns D, Büller H, Buntinx F, Byron S, Chang S, Cohen JF, Cooper R, de Groot J, Deeks J, Dendukuri N, Dinnes J, Fleming K, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Golub RM, Guyatt G, Heneghan C, Hilden J, Hooft L, Horvath R, Hunink M, Hyde C, Ioannidis J, Janes H, Kleijnen J, Knottnerus A, Korevaar A, Kressel HY, Lange S, Leeflang M, Lijmer JG, Lord S, Lumbreras B, Macaskill P, Magid E, Mallett S, McInnes M, McNeil B, McQueen M, Moher D, Moons K, Morris K, Mustafa R, Obuchowski N, Ochodo E, Onderdonk A, Overbeke J, Pai N, Peeling R, Pepe M, Petersen S, Price C, Ravaud P, Reitsma JB, Rennie D, Rifai N, Rutjes A, Schunemann H, Simel D, Simera I, Smidt N, Steyerberg E, Straus S, Summerskill W, Takwoingi Y, Thompson M, van de Bruel A, van Maanen H, Vickers A, Virgili G, Walter S, Weber W, Westwood M, Wilczynski N, Ziegler A]] , STARD 2015: an updated list of essential items for reporting diagnostic accuracy studies. BMJ-BRIT MED J 2015;351:h5527 [PubMed]
de Vries EMG, Verheij J, Hubscher SG, Leeflang MMG, Boonstra K, Beuers U, Ponsioen CY, Applicability and prognostic value of histologic scoring systems in primary sclerosing cholangitis. J HEPATOL 2015;63 (5):1212-1219 [PubMed]
Kadouch DJ, Schram ME, Leeflang MM, Limpens J, Spuls PI, de Rie MA, In vivo confocal microscopy of basal cell carcinoma: a systematic review of diagnostic accuracy. J EUR ACAD DERMATOL 2015;29 (10):1890-1897 [PubMed]
Korevaar DA, Wang J, van Enst WA, Leeflang MM, Hooft L, Smidt N, Bossuyt PMM, Reporting diagnostic accuracy studies: some improvements after 10 years of STARD. RADIOLOGY 2015;274 (3):781-789 [PubMed]
Kulkarni M, Gokulakrishnan G, Price J, Fernandes CJ, Leeflang M, Pammi M, Diagnosing significant PDA using natriuretic peptides in preterm neonates: a systematic review. PEDIATRICS 2015;135 (2):e510-e525 [PubMed]
Leeflang MM, Reporting diagnostic accuracy studies: where are we now?. BIOMARK MED 2015;9 (9):897-899 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Debets-Ossenkopp YJ, Wang J, Visser CE, Scholten RJPM, Hooft L, Bijlmer HA, Reitsma JB, Zhang M, Bossuyt PMM, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Galactomannan detection for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2015;2015 (12):CD007394 [PubMed]
Ochodo EA, Gopalakrishna G, Spek B, Reitsma JB, van Lieshout L, Polman K, Lamberton P, Bossuyt PMM, Leeflang MMG, Circulating antigen tests and urine reagent strips for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis in endemic areas. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2015;2015 (3):CD009579 [PubMed]
Samara MT, Leucht C, Leeflang MM, Anghelescu IG, Chung YC, Crespo-Facorro B, Elkis H, Hatta K, Giegling I, Kane JM, Kayo M, Lambert M, Lin CH, Möller HJ, Pelayo-Terán JM, Riedel M, Rujescu D, Schimmelmann BG, Serretti A, Correll CU, Leucht S, Early Improvement As a Predictor of Later Response to Antipsychotics in Schizophrenia: A Diagnostic Test Review. AM J PSYCHIAT 2015;172 (7):617-629 [PubMed]
Shaikh N, Borrell JL, Evron J, Leeflang MMG, Procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2015;2015 (1):CD009185 [PubMed]
van Enst WA, Naaktgeboren CA, Ochodo EA, de Groot JAH, Leeflang MM, Reitsma JB, Scholten RJPM, Moons KGM, Zwinderman AH, Bossuyt PMM, Hooft L, Small-study effects and time trends in diagnostic test accuracy meta-analyses: a meta-epidemiological study. SYST REV 2015;4 (1):66 [PubMed]
Wang J, Bossuyt P, Geskus R, Zwinderman A, Dolleman M, Broer S, Broekmans F, Mol BW, Leeflang M, Using individual patient data to adjust for indirectness did not successfully remove the bias in this case of comparative test accuracy. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2015;68 (3):290-298 [PubMed]
de Ruiter CM, van der Veer C, Leeflang MMG, Deborggraeve S, Lucas C, Adams ER, Molecular tools for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis: systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. J CLIN MICROBIOL 2014;52 (9):3147-3155 [PubMed]
Gopalakrishna G, Mustafa RA, Davenport C, Scholten RJPM, Hyde C, Brozek J, Schünemann HJ, Bossuyt PMM, Leeflang MMG, Langendam MW, Applying Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) to diagnostic tests was challenging but doable. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2014;67 (7):760-768 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy. CLIN MICROBIOL INFEC 2014;20 (2):105-113 [PubMed]
Naaktgeboren CA, van Enst WA, Ochodo EA, de Groot JAH, Hooft L, Leeflang MM, Bossuyt PM, Moons KGM, Reitsma JB, Systematic overview finds variation in approaches to investigating and reporting on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2014;67 (11):1200-1209 [PubMed]
Niemeijer MN, Grooten IJ, Vos N, Bais JMJ, van der Post JA, Mol BW, Roseboom TJ, Leeflang MMG, Painter RC, Diagnostic markers for hyperemesis gravidarum: a systematic review and metaanalysis. AM J OBSTET GYNECOL 2014;211 (2):150.e1-150.15 [PubMed]
Ochodo EA. Strengthening methods of diagnostic accuracy studies. S.l.: s.n.; 2014. 249p. ISBN 9789088919046 [UvA Dissertations Online] Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam. (Promotor(s): Bossuyt PMM; copromotor(s): Leeflang MMG)
Ochodo EA, van Enst WA, Naaktgeboren CA, de Groot JAH, Hooft L, Moons KGM, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PM, Leeflang MMG, Incorporating quality assessments of primary studies in the conclusions of diagnostic accuracy reviews: a cross-sectional study. BMC MED RES METHODOL 2014;14 (1):33 [PubMed]
Rutten MJ, Leeflang MMG, Kenter GG, Mol BWJ, Buist M, Laparoscopy for diagnosing resectability of disease in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2014;2014 (2):CD009786 [PubMed]
van der Jagt-Willems HC, van Munster BC, Leeflang M, Beuerle E, Tulner CR, Lems WF, Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment. EUR J RADIOL 2014;83 (12):2177-2180 [PubMed]
van Enst WA, Ochodo E, Scholten RJPM, Hooft L, Leeflang MM, Investigation of publication bias in meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a meta-epidemiological study. BMC MED RES METHODOL 2014;14 (1):70 [PubMed]
Adams ER, Versteeg I, Leeflang MMG, Systematic Review into Diagnostics for Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL). J TROP MED 2013;2013:150746 [PubMed]
Beynon R, Leeflang MMG, McDonald S, Eisinga A, Mitchell RL, Whiting P, Glanville JM, Search strategies to identify diagnostic accuracy studies in MEDLINE and EMBASE. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2013;2013 (9):MR000022 [PubMed]
Gopalakrishna G, Langendam MW, Scholten RJPM, Bossuyt PMM, Leeflang MMG, Guidelines for guideline developers: a systematic review of grading systems for medical tests. IMPLEMENT SCI 2013;8 (1):78 [PubMed]
Goris MGA, Leeflang MMG, Loden M, Wagenaar JFP, Klatser PR, Hartskeerl RA, Boer KR, Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis. PLOS NEGLECT TROP D 2013;7 (7):e2290 [PubMed]
Leclercq E, Leeflang MMG, van Dalen EC, Kremer LCM, Validation of search filters for identifying pediatric studies in PubMed. J PEDIATR-US 2013;162 (3):629-634.e2 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Deeks JJ, Takwoingi Y, Macaskill P, Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy reviews. SYST REV 2013;2:82 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Rutjes AWS, Reitsma JB, Hooft L, Bossuyt PMM, Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence. CAN MED ASSOC J 2013;185 (11):E537-E544 [PubMed]
Ochodo EA, de Haan MC, Reitsma JB, Hooft L, Bossuyt PM, Leeflang MMG, Overinterpretation and misreporting of diagnostic accuracy studies: evidence of "spin". RADIOLOGY 2013;267 (2):581-588 [PubMed]
Ochodo EA, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PM, Leeflang MMG, Survey revealed a lack of clarity about recommended methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy data. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2013;66 (11):1281-1288 [PubMed]
Takwoingi Y, Leeflang MMG, Deeks JJ, Empirical evidence of the importance of comparative studies of diagnostic test accuracy. ANN INTERN MED 2013;158 (7):544-554 [PubMed]
Treweek S, Oxman AD, Alderson P, Bossuyt PM, Brandt L, Brożek J, Davoli M, Flottorp S, Harbour R, Hill S, Liberati A, Liira H, Schünemann HJ, Rosenbaum S, Thornton J, Vandvik PO, Alonso-Coello P [Contributors: Hartley C, Loudon K, Slater W, Stewart N, Treweek S, Brandt L, Flottorp S, Glenton C, Kristiansen A, Lewin S, Moberg J, Morelli A, Oxman A, Rosenbaum S, Vandvik PO, Ødgaard-Jensen J, Alonso-Coello P, Martinez-García L, Rigau D, Solà I, Sanabria AJ, Amato L, Brunetti M, Davoli M, Magrini N, Parmelli E, Nonino F, de Palma R, Papini D, Pregno S, Saitto C, Bossuyt P, Gopalakrishna G, Langendam M, Leeflang M, Scholten R, Gülmezoglu M, Permanand G, Weerasuriyak K, Antes G, Meerpohl J, Schünemann H, Alderson P, McFarlane E, Thornton J, Callaghan M, Graham K, Harbour R, Ritchie K, Service D, Kunnamo I, Liira H, Guyatt G, Mustafa R, Neumann I, Santesso N, Spencer F, Falck-Ytter Y, Brignardello-Petersen R, Carrasco- Labra A, Kunz R, Akl E]] , Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results. IMPLEMENT SCI 2013;8 (1):6 [PubMed]
Wanders LK, East JE, Uitentuis SE, Leeflang MMG, Dekker E, Diagnostic performance of narrowed spectrum endoscopy, autofluorescence imaging, and confocal laser endomicroscopy for optical diagnosis of colonic polyps: a meta-analysis. LANCET ONCOL 2013;14 (13):1337-1347 [PubMed]
Whiting PF, Rutjes AWS, Westwood ME, Mallett S [Contributors: Mallett S, Sterne JAC, Whiting PF, Bossuyt PMM, Leeflang MMG, Deeks JJ, Reitsma JB, Rutjes AWS, Westwood ME]] , A systematic review classifies sources of bias and variation in diagnostic test accuracy studies. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2013;66 (10):1093-1104 [PubMed]
Chartrand C, Leeflang MMG, Minion J, Brewer T, Pai M, Accuracy of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests A Meta-analysis. ANN INTERN MED 2012;156 (7):500-U80 [PubMed]
Cobelens F, van den Hof S, Pai M, Squire SB, Ramsay A, Kimerling ME [Contributors: Bhan A, Chin D, Dewan P, Durovni B, Dye C, Goldhaber-Fiebert J, Harper I, Langley I, Leeflang M, Lienhardt C, McCray E, Mukadi YD, Nicol M, O'Brien R, Ridderhof J, Schito M, Small P, Vassall A, Zhao Y]] , Which New Diagnostics for Tuberculosis, and When?. J INFECT DIS 2012;205 (2):S191-S198 [PubMed]
Geersing GJ, Bouwmeester W, Zuithoff P, Spijker R, Leeflang M, Moons KGM, Moons K, Search Filters for Finding Prognostic and Diagnostic Prediction Studies in Medline to Enhance Systematic Reviews. PLOS ONE 2012;7 (2):e32844 [PubMed]
Leenaars M, Hooijmans CR, van Veggel N, ter Riet G, Leeflang M, Hooft L, van der Wilt GJ, Tillema A, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, A step-by-step guide to systematically identify all relevant animal studies. LAB ANIM-UK 2012;46 (1):24-31 [PubMed]
Mugasa CM, Adams ER, Boer KR, Dyserinck HC, Büscher P, Schallig HDHF, Leeflang MMG, Diagnostic Accuracy of Molecular Amplification Tests for Human African Trypanosomiasis-Systematic Review. PLOS NEGLECT TROP D 2012;6 (1):e1438 [PubMed]
Schram ME, Roekevisch E, Leeflang MMG, Bos JD, Schmitt J, Spuls PI, Methotrexaat versus azathioprine bij ernstig atopisch eczeem. NED TIJDSCHR DERMATOL VENEREOL 2012;22 (3):176-179
Schram ME, Roekevisch E, Leeflang MMG, Bos JD, Schmitt J, Spuls PI, Response to a randomized trial of methotrexate vs. azathioprine for severe atopic eczema: a critical appraisal. BRIT J DERMATOL 2012;166 (4):704-U27
Schram ME, Spuls PI, Leeflang MMG, Lindeboom R, Bos JD, Schmitt J, EASI, (objective) SCORAD and POEM for atopic eczema: responsiveness and minimal clinically important difference. ALLERGY 2012;67 (1):99-106 [PubMed]
Vrijman C, Kroon MW, Limpens J, Leeflang MMG, Luiten RM, van der Veen JPW, Wolkerstorfer A, Spuls PI, The prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with vitiligo: a systematic review. BRIT J DERMATOL 2012;167 (6):1224-1235 [PubMed]
Young T, Abba K, Deeks JJ, Olliaro PL, Naing CM, Jackson SM, Takwoingi Y, Donegan S, Garner P, Bottieau E, Jacobs J, Nachega JB, Leeflang M, Cochrane Column * Rapid diagnostic tests can extend access of diagnostic services for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria * Commentary: Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in endemic countries (Review) * Approach to conducting Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy Reviews. INT J EPIDEMIOL 2012;41 (3):607-610 [PubMed]
Kattenberg JH, Ochodo EA, Boer KR, Schallig HDFH, Mens PF, Leeflang MMG, Systematic review and meta-analysis: rapid diagnostic tests versus placental histology, microscopy and PCR for malaria in pregnant women. MALARIA J 2011;10:321 [PubMed]
Pammi M, Flores A, Leeflang M, Versalovic J, Molecular assays in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PEDIATRICS 2011;128 (4):e973-e985 [PubMed]
Schram ME. Atopic dermatitis: epidemiology & off-label therapy. s.l.: s.n.; 2011. 219p. ISBN 9789461820082 [UvA Dissertations Online] Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam. (Promotor(s): Bos JD; copromotor(s): Spuls PI, Leeflang MMG)
Schram ME, Leeflang MMG, den Ottolander JPS, Spuls PI, Bos JD, Validation and refinement of the Millennium Criteria for atopic dermatitis. J DERMATOL 2011;38 (9):850-858 [PubMed]
Schram ME, Roekevisch E, Leeflang MMG, Bos JD, Schmitt J, Spuls PI, A randomized trial of methotrexate versus azathioprine for severe atopic eczema. J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUN 2011;128 (2):353-359 [PubMed]
Whiting PF, Rutjes AWS, Westwood ME, Mallett S, Deeks JJ, Reitsma JB, Leeflang MMG, Sterne JAC, Bossuyt PMM [Contributors: Altman D, Mallett S, Begg C, Beynon R, Sterne JAC, Whiting PF, Bossuyt PMM, Leeflang MMG, Lijmer J, Cornell J, Davenport C, Deeks JJ, Khan K, Glasziou P, Horvath R, Irwig L, Macaskill P, Hyde C, Moons KGM, Reitsma JB, Raatz H, Rutjes AWS, Shaw B, Tan T, van der Windt D, Virgili G, Westwood ME]] , QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. ANN INTERN MED 2011;155 (8):529-536 [PubMed]
Donnelly JP, Leeflang MM, Galactomannan Detection and Diagnosis of Invasive Aspergillosis. CLIN INFECT DIS 2010;50 (7):1070-1071 [PubMed]
Klatser P, Anthony R, den Hertog A, Leeflang M, Boer K, Misleading conclusion. INT J TUBERC LUNG D 2010;14 (3):377 [PubMed]
Mugasa CM, Deborggraeve S, Schoone GJ, Laurent T, Leeflang MM, Ekangu RA, El Safi S, Saad AFA, Basiye FL, de Doncker S, Lubega GW, Kager PA, Büscher P, Schallig HDFH, Accordance and concordance of PCR and NASBA followed by oligochromatography for the molecular diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania. TROP MED INT HEALTH 2010;15 (7):800-805 [PubMed]
Cnossen JS, ter Riet G, Mol BW, van der Post JA, Leeflang MM, Meads CA, Hyde C, Khan KS, Are tests for predicting pre-eclampsia good enough to make screening viable? A review of reviews and critical appraisal. ACTA OBSTET GYN SCAN 2009;88 (7):758-765 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Bossuyt PMM, Irwig L, Diagnostic test accuracy may vary with prevalence: implications for evidence-based diagnosis. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2009;62 (1):5-12 [PubMed]
Lijmer JG, Leeflang M, Bossuyt PMM, Proposals for a phased evaluation of medical tests. MED DECIS MAKING 2009;29 (5):E13-E21 [PubMed]
van Munster BC, Korevaar JC, Zwinderman AH, Leeflang MM, de Rooij SEJA, The association between delirium and the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele: new study results and a meta-analysis. AM J GERIAT PSYCHIAT 2009;17 (10):856-862 [PubMed]
Wagenaar JFP, Gasem MH, Goris MGA, Leeflang M, Hartskeerl RA, van der Poll T, van 't Veer C, van Gorp ECM, Soluble ST2 Levels Are Associated with Bleeding in Patients with Severe Leptospirosis. PLOS NEGLECT TROP D 2009;3 (6):e453 [PubMed]
Brenninkmeijer EEA, Schram ME, Leeflang MMG, Bos JD, Spuls PI, Diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis: a systematic review. BRIT J DERMATOL 2008;158 (4):754-765 [PubMed]
Leeflang M, Hooft L, Vermeulen H, Diagnostisch onderzoek (deel 4).. NED TIJDSCHR EVID BASED PRACT 2008;6 (3):18-23
Leeflang MM, Debets-Ossenkopp YJ, Visser CE, Scholten RJPM, Hooft L, Bijlmer HA, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PMM, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Galactomannan detection for invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromized patients. COCHRANE DB SYST REV 2008;2008 (4):CD007394 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy. s.l.: s.n.; 2008. 188p. ISBN 97890902316 [UvA Dissertations Online] Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam. (Promotor(s): Bossuyt PMM; copromotor(s): Scholten RJPM, Reitsma JB)
Leeflang MMG, Deeks JJ, Gatsonis C, Bossuyt PMM, Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. ANN INTERN MED 2008;149 (12):889-+ [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Moons KGM, Reitsma JB, Zwinderman AH, Bias in sensitivity and specificity caused by data-driven selection of optimal cutoff values: mechanisms, magnitude, and solutions. CLIN CHEM 2008;54 (4):729-737 [PubMed]
Meads CA, Cnossen JS, Meher S, Juarez-Garcia A, ter Riet G, Duley L, Roberts TE, Mol BW, van der Post JA, Leeflang MM, Barton PM, Hyde CJ, Gupta JK, Khan KS, Methods of prediction and prevention of pre-eclampsia: systematic reviews of accuracy and effectiveness literature with economic modelling. HEALTH TECHNOL ASSES 2008;12 (6):iii-iv, 1-270 [PubMed]
Cnossen JS, Leeflang MMG, de Haan EEM, Mol BWJ, van der Post JAM, Khan KS, ter Riet G, Accuracy of body mass index in predicting pre-eclampsia: bivariate meta-analysis. BJOG-INT J OBSTET GY 2007;114 (12):1477-1485 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Cnossen JS, van der Post JAM, Mol BWJ, Khan KS, ter Riet G, Accuracy of fibronectin tests for the prediction of pre-eclampsia: a systematic review. EUR J OBSTET GYN R B 2007;133 (1):12-19 [PubMed]
Leeflang M, Reitsma J, Scholten R, Rutjes A, Di Nisio M, Deeks J, Bossuyt P, Impact of adjustment for quality on results of metaanalyses of diagnostic accuracy. CLIN CHEM 2007;53 (2):164-172 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Debets-Ossenkopp YJ, Visser CE, Bossuyt PMM, Meta-analysis of diagnostic test accuracy. CLIN INFECT DIS 2006;43 (9):1220; author reply 1220-1220; author reply 1221 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Scholten RJPM, Rutjes AWS, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PMM, Use of methodological search filters to identify diagnostic accuracy studies can lead to the omission of relevant studies. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2006;59 (3):234-240 [PubMed]
Cnossen JS, Leeflang MMG, Mol BWJ, van der Post JAM, Khan KS, Gupta JK, ter Riet G, Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: prediction or causality?. BMJ-BRIT MED J 2005;330 (e-letter):565
Leeflang M, Evidence-based medicine in de veterinaire praktijk. TIJDSCHR DIERGENEESK 2005;130 (2):48-49 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Bossuyt PMM, Test accuracy is likely to vary depending on the population it is used in. VET PARASITOL 2005;134 (1-2):189 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Symposium 'Healthy animals, healthy people'. TIJDSCHR DIERGENEESK 2004;129 (9):303-ev
Key publications

Leeflang MMG, Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy. CLIN MICROBIOL INFEC 2014;20 (2):105-113 [PubMed]
Ochodo EA, de Haan MC, Reitsma JB, Hooft L, Bossuyt PM, Leeflang MMG, Overinterpretation and misreporting of diagnostic accuracy studies: evidence of "spin". RADIOLOGY 2013;267 (2):581-588 [PubMed]
Leeflang MMG, Rutjes AWS, Reitsma JB, Hooft L, Bossuyt PMM, Variation of a test's sensitivity and specificity with disease prevalence. CAN MED ASSOC J 2013;185 (11):E537-E544 [PubMed]
Ochodo EA, Reitsma JB, Bossuyt PM, Leeflang MMG, Survey revealed a lack of clarity about recommended methods for meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy data. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2013;66 (11):1281-1288 [PubMed]
Wang J, Bossuyt P, Geskus R, Zwinderman A, Dolleman M, Broer S, Broekmans F, Mol BW, Leeflang M, Using individual patient data to adjust for indirectness did not successfully remove the bias in this case of comparative test accuracy. J CLIN EPIDEMIOL 2015;68 (3):290-298 [PubMed]


All Publications

Curriculum Vitae

BACKGROUND
2002 – 2003 Professional training Veterinary Medicine (Medical training internship).
Graduated as a large animal veterinarian in November 2003.
2000 – 2002 Excellent track research internship, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University.
1996 – 2000 MSc Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Faculty, Utrecht University.

WORK EXPERIENCE
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, University of Amsterdam:
Period: July 2008 – present
Position: Epidemiologist, researcher
Tasks involve: Methodological research in diagnostic test evaluation and diagnostic meta-analysis.

Continental Europe Regional Support Unit for Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy reviews:
Period: February 2007 – 2010
Position: Epidemiologist
Tasks involve: Providing support for Cochrane Review Groups and review authors who are based on the European continent and involved in the preparation and publication of diagnostic test accuracy reviews. Mariska is responsible for the training courses and the website of the DTA working group. Besides that she has tested the RevMan 5 software and assists authors with meta-analyses, methodology, searching.

Epidemiology Unit, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam
Period: April 2008 – January 2010
Position: Epidemiologist, providing methodological support
Tasks involve: Preparation of and presenting epidemiology lectures in Rwanda and Amsterdam and assisting with research methodology for different diagnostic test evaluation projects. Also coordinator of training in diagnostic research methods for KIT-BR staff members.

PhD, University of Amsterdam:
Period: February 2004 – July 2008
Department: Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center (in cooperation with the Dutch Cochrane Centre)
Supervisors: prof.dr. Patrick Bossuyt, dr. Rob Scholten, dr. Hans Reitsma
Title: Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy
Graduation: 1st July, 2008.

TEACHING ACTIVITIES
2016 – now:  Coordinator of the Honours program of the AMC, a highly ambitious program for outstanding medical students, bachelor level and master level.
2015 – now:  Guest Lecturer in Master programs of the University of Birmingham and the Paris Descartes University in Paris.
2011 – now:  For the AMC Graduate School: five-day course on Test Evaluation for PhD students.
2007 – 2010:  For the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) in Amsterdam: Lecturer Evidence-Based Medicine and Diagnostic test evaluations at the Medical School of Kigali, Rwanda; and coordinator of an internal training program on test evaluation for employees of the KIT.

INVITED LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS
2016 Two days lecturing Cochrane diagnostic reviews for the University of Tehran, Iran.
2015 Keynote speaker at the expert meeting on Lyme disease at the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden.
2013 Keynote speaker at the autumn meeting of the British Society for Parasitology, Liverpool.
2009 & 2011 Lectures for the University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.
2010 One-day lecturing on diagnostic accuracy reviews at McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
2010 Invited presentation at the Gates’ Foundation, Seattle, USA; about TB testing.
2009 Two-day lecturing on Cochrane diagnostic reviews for Thai contributors, Bangkok.
2008 Invited presentation for the 5th Asian-Pacific Conference on EBM, Lanzhou, China.

ORGANISATION OF SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS
2004 – 2014 For Cochrane©: coordinator of workshops about diagnostic review methodology at all Cochrane Colloquia from 2004 to 2014.
2011 Member of the organizing committee for the yearly meeting of the Dutch Working Group for Epidemiology research (WEON), IJmuiden, The Netherlands
2011 Organizer of a two-day international workshop on comparative accuracy and network meta-analyses in Amsterdam.

COMMISSIONS OF TRUST AND MEMBERSHIPS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES
2016 – now Associate Editor for the BMC Diagnostic and Prognostic Research, a new journal.
2011 – now Board member of The Netherlands Epidemiological Society.
2011 – now Associate Editor for the BMC Medical Research Methodology. (IF 3)
2008 – now Editor for the Cochrane Diagnostic Test Accuracy Editorial Team. (IF 6)
2004 – now Peer reviewer for a number of scientific journals, among which the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, The BMJ and Scientific Reports (open access journal from Nature).

FUNDING HISTORY
2016 – 2020 MiRoR (Methods in Research of Research); H2020, Marie Curie Innovative Training Network (European Joint Doctorate). Co-applicant and supervisor of two PhD students.
2014 – 2016 Methods Innovation Fund, Plain Language Summaries for Cochrane Diagnostic test accuracy reviews (50,000 euros); co-applicant and supervisor of post-doc.
2010 – 2014 Veni, The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO); 250.000 euros
2011 – 2016 FP7 program, DECIDE; co-applicant and supervisor of one PhD student.
2012 – 2014 Evaluation of serology for Lyme disease; ECDC; 50.000 euros; co-applicant and lead-author.

PRIZES AND AWARDS
2016 Aspasia – to promote excellent female researchers to either an associate or full professorship; The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
2010 VENI - highly competitive scheme from The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO); project 916.10.034

INSTITUTIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
2013 – now Board member of the Graduate School of the AMC, The Netherlands.
2009 – now Member of the Methods Executive of Cochrane©
 

Research programmes

Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses of Diagnostic Tests

Evidence-based diagnosis and shared decision making in the diagnostic process start with thinking about what evidence is needed to inform patients, clinicians and policy makers about the performance, consequences and added value of diagnostic testing. At the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine are systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This research line focuses on the complete range of diagnostic tests (questionnaires, biomarkers, imaging, etc) and on the complete review process: from review question via type of studies to be included, search strategies, quality assessment, meta-analysis, investigation of heterogeneity and interpretation of the results. It does not focus on the question whether a particular test is valid for a particular disease, but it focuses on the methodological questions behind it: how to decide that a test is valid; how to compare different tests; is the test with the higher odds ratio always better? We also focus on the review process: is it necessary to retrieve every possibly relevant paper for the meta-analysis; how can we incorporate quality assessment in meta-analyses, etc.

In the future, I will specifically focus on (1) comparative accuracy reviews; (2) research integrity and reproducibility in diagnostic reviews; and (3) understanding of patients and public. Comparative accuracy reviews try to answer the question whether one test is more accurate than another. My hypothesis is that this is in fact a causal question, for which considerations about confounding may be important. Research integrity refers to the condcut of (in my case) accuracy studies and accuracy reviews. We are not sure whether there is a thing like publication bias in diagnostic systematic reviews, or whether and how conflicts in interest play a role. Lastly, the understanding and use of testing by patients and public is something to investigate: are patients able to make well-informed choices about diagnostics?

Faculty
Dr. M.M.G. Leeflang

PhD Students
Drs. E. Roekevisch
C. Norman MA (LIMSI-CNRS)

Prof. dr. P.M.M. Bossuyt (BIomarker and Test Evaluation program (BITE))

Other research related activities
  • Membership of editorial board / Editorship, COCHRANE DATABASE OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS
Current research funding
  • AMC
  • NWO