D.J.A. Smit PhD publications


Publications PhD D.J.A. Smit

Research Associate
Main activities
Genetic neuroscience in psychiatry
Focus of research

My focus of research lies in the intersection of two major scientific fields, neuroscience and genetics.


EEG is my main tool of investigation of how the brain works. Oscillatory activity (in rest or during task execution) is pervasively present in the signals that are recorded from the brain, both outside the skull and inside the brain (intracranial EEG). These oscillations are increasingly recognized as an important, perhaps even crucial element of the active brain. A large body of evidence shows that oscillations reflect synchronization of distant and not-so-distant brain areas, allowing them to synchronize neuronal spike activity and pass information.

I investigate the large scale properties of the brain network that show these interlocking oscillations. What brains show increased levels of synchrony, and is this predictive of behavior? What properties do the networks have that may reflect increased efficiency, measures that are based on graph theory? What are the intrinsic dynamics of the brain's activoty, and how do these predict behavior, ranigng from the most simple fingertapping task to creativity? How are intrancranial recordings of subcortical areas involved in reward processing and know to be affected in several mental health disorders, connected to cortical brain areas, mainly frontal cortical areas such as the Anterior Cingulate Cortex? 


My main focus here is to investigate whether the EEG measures based on oscillatory activity are genetic. Spoiler, some measures of brain function are one of the most heritable traits in humans. More recently, I have added investigations of the molecular genetics of brain activity. In addition, I am involved in investigations of the molecular genetics of mental health traits, including Obsessive-Compulsive disorders and substance use disorders. 

In addition, I am part of several genetic consortia: The Psychiatric Genomics consortium and ENIGMA. Specifically, I lead the ENIGMA-EEG consortium investigating the molecular genetics underlying brain activity, in order to relate these genetics to mental health disorders. I am further part of the OCD working group of the PGC, and co-leader of the OC symptom group and Hoarding group. These groups' aims is perfroming a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) for their respective traits.




  • Abdellaoui Abderrahman, Treur Jorien L., Nivard Michel G., Smit Dirk J. A., Veul Laura, Vermeulen Jentien M., Peyrot Wouter J., Penninx B. W. J. H., Boomsma Dorret I., van den Brink Willem, Denys Damiaan A. J. P., Verweij Karin J. H. Antwoord aan Van Os Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie 2021;63 (1):86
  • Hederih Jure, Nuninga Jasper O., van Eijk Kristel, van Dellen Edwin, Smit Dirk J. A., Oranje Bob, Luykx Jurjen J. Genetic underpinnings of schizophrenia-related electroencephalographical intermediate phenotypes: A systematic review and meta-analysis Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry 2021;104 [PubMed]
  • Abdellaoui Abdel, Smit Dirk J. A., van den Brink Wim, Denys Damiaan, Verweij Karin J. H. Genomic relationships across psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders Drug and alcohol dependence 2021;220 [PubMed]


  • Pasman Joëlle A., Smit Dirk J. A., Kingma Lilian, Vink Jacqueline M., Treur Jorien L., Verweij Karin J. H. Causal relationships between substance use and insomnia Drug and alcohol dependence 2020;214 [PubMed]
  • Pasman Joëlle A., Smit Dirk J. A., Kingma Lilian, Vink Jacqueline M., Treur Jorien L., Verweij Karin J. H. Corrigendum to “Causal relationships between substance use and insomnia” [Drug Alcohol Dependence 214 (2020) 108151] (Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2020) 214, (S0376871620303161), (10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108151)) Drug and alcohol dependence 2020;216 [PubMed]
  • Thompson Paul M., Jahanshad Neda, Ching Christopher R. K., Salminen Lauren E., Thomopoulos Sophia I., Bright Joanna, Baune Bernhard T., Bertolín Sara, Bralten Janita, Bruin Willem B., Bülow Robin, Chen Jian, Chye Yann, Dannlowski Udo, de Kovel Carolien G. F., Donohoe Gary, Eyler Lisa T., Faraone Stephen V., Favre Pauline, Filippi Courtney A., Frodl Thomas, Garijo Daniel, Gil Yolanda, Grabe Hans J., Grasby Katrina L., Hajek Tomas, Han Laura K. M., Hatton Sean N., Hilbert Kevin, Ho Tiffany C., Holleran Laurena, Homuth Georg, Hosten Norbert, Houenou Josselin, Ivanov Iliyan, Jia Tianye, Kelly Sinead, Klein Marieke, Kwon Jun Soo, Laansma Max A., Leerssen Jeanne, Lueken Ulrike, Nunes Abraham, Neill Joseph O., Opel Nils, Piras Fabrizio, Piras Federica, van Wingen Guido A., Schmaal Lianne, Smit Dirk J. A. ENIGMA and global neuroscience: A decade of large-scale studies of the brain in health and disease across more than 40 countries Translational psychiatry 2020;10 (1):100 [PubMed]
  • Eijsker Nadine, van Wingen Guido, Smolders Ruud, Smit Dirk J. A., Denys Damiaan Exploring the role of the nucleus accumbens in adaptive behavior using concurrent intracranial and extracranial electrophysiological recordings in humans eNeuro 2020;7 (6):1-11 [PubMed]
  • Abdellaoui A., Treur J. L., Nivard M. G., Smit D. J. A., Veul L., Vermeulen J. M., Peyrot W., Penninx B. W. J. H., Boomsma D. I., van den Brink W., Denys D., Verweij K. J. H. Genen en omgeving beide belangrijk bij psychisch lijden Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie 2020;62 (10):835-838 [PubMed]
  • Marees Andries T., Gamazon Eric R., Gerring Zachary, Vorspan Florence, Fingal Josh, van den Brink Wim, Smit Dirk J. A., Verweij Karin J. H., Kranzler Henry R., Sherva Richard, Farrer Lindsay, Gelernter Joel, Derks Eske M. Post-GWAS analysis of six substance use traits improves the identification and functional interpretation of genetic risk loci Drug and alcohol dependence 2020;206 [PubMed]
  • Marees Andries T, Smit Dirk J A, Ong Jue-Sheng, MacGregor Stuart, An Jiyuan, Denys Damiaan, Vorspan Florence, van den Brink Wim, Derks Eske M Potential influence of socioeconomic status on genetic correlations between alcohol consumption measures and mental health Psychological medicine 2020;50 (3):484-498 [PubMed]
  • Nieman Dorien H., Chavez-Baldini UnYoung, Vulink Nienke C., Smit Dirk J. A., van Wingen Guido, de Koning Pelle, Sutterland Arjen L., Mocking Roel J. T., Bockting Claudi, Verweij Karin J. H., Lok Anja, Denys Damiaan Protocol Across study: longitudinal transdiagnostic cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and biological parameters in patients with a psychiatric disorder BMC psychiatry 2020;20 (1):212 [PubMed]
  • Weiland Ricarda F., Polderman Tinca J. C., Hoekstra Rosa A., Smit Dirk J. A., Begeer Sander The Dutch Sensory Perception Quotient-Short in adults with and without autism Autism 2020;24 (8):2071-2080 [PubMed]
  • Prent Naomi, Smit Dirk J. A. The dynamics of resting-state alpha oscillations predict individual differences in creativity Neuropsychologia 2020;142 [PubMed]


  • Cath Danielle C., Zilhão Nuno R., Smit Dirk J. A., Boomsma Dorret I. 3 - Family and Twin Studies of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disordersin: Leonardo F. Fontenelle, Murat Yücel, editors. A Transdiagnostic Approach to Obsessions, Compulsions and Related Phenomena. Cambridge University Press; 2019. p. 19-28, ISBN 9781108164313
  • Vandenbosch Marjolein M. L. J. Z., Ent Dennis van 't, Boomsma Dorret I., Anokhin Andrey P., Smit Dirk J. A. EEG-based age-prediction models as stable and heritable indicators of brain maturational level in children and adolescents Human brain mapping 2019;40 (6):1919-1926 [PubMed]
  • Smit Dirk J. A., Cath Danielle, Zilhão Nuno R., Ip Hill F., Denys Damiaan, den Braber Anouk, de Geus Eco J. C., Verweij Karin J. H., Hottenga Jouke-Jan, Boomsma Dorret I. Genetic meta-analysis of obsessive–compulsive disorder and self-report compulsive symptoms American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics 2019 [PubMed]
  • Zilhão Nuno R., Boomsma Dorret I., Smit Dirk J. A., Cath Danielle C. Genetics of obsessive-compulsive disorder and Tourette's syndromein: Andrei C. Miu, Judith R. Homberg , Klaus-Peter Lesch, editors. Genes, brain, and emotions. Oxford University Press; 2019., ISBN 9780198793014
  • Eijsker Nadine, Schröder Arjan, Smit Dirk J. A., van Wingen Guido, Denys Damiaan Neural Basis of Response Bias on the Stop Signal Task in Misophonia Frontiers in psychiatry 2019;10 [PubMed]
  • Fraga González G., Smit D. J. A., van der Molen M. J. W., Tijms J., de Geus E. J. C., van der Molen M. W. Probability learning and feedback processing in dyslexia: A performance and heart rate analysis Psychophysiology 2019 [PubMed]
  • Teixeira Borges Ana Filipa, Irrmischer Mona, Brockmeier Thomas, Smit Dirk J. A., Mansvelder Huibert D., Linkenkaer-Hansen Klaus Scaling behaviour in music and cortical dynamics interplay to mediate music listening pleasure Scientific reports 2019;9 (1) [PubMed]


  • Marees Andries T., Hammerschlag Anke R., Bastarache Lisa, de Kluiver Hilde, Vorspan Florence, van den Brink Wim, Smit Dirk J., Denys Damiaan, Gamazon Eric R., Li-Gao Ruifang, Breetvelt Elemi J., de Groot Mark C. H., Galesloot Tessel E., Vermeulen Sita H., Poppelaars Jan L., Souverein Patrick C., Keeman Renske, de Mutsert Renée, Noordam Raymond, Rosendaal Frits R., Stringa Najada, Mook-Kanamori Dennis O., Vaartjes Ilonca, Kiemeney Lambertus A., den Heijer Martin, van Schoor Natasja M., Klungel Olaf H., Maitland-van der Zee Anke H., Schmidt Marjanka K., Polderman Tinca J. C., van der Leij Andries R., Posthuma Danielle, Derks Eske M. Exploring the role of low-frequency and rare exonic variants in alcohol and tobacco use Drug and alcohol dependence 2018;188:94-101 [PubMed]
  • Smit Dirk J. A., Wright Margaret J., Meyers Jacquelyn L., Martin Nicholas G., Ho Yvonne Y. W., Malone Stephen M., Zhang Jian, Burwell Scott J., Chorlian David B., de Geus Eco J. C., Denys Damiaan, Hansell Narelle K., Hottenga Jouke-Jan, McGue Matt, van Beijsterveldt Catharina E. M., Jahanshad Neda, Thompson Paul M., Whelan Christopher D., Medland Sarah E., Porjesz Bernice, Lacono William G., Boomsma Dorret I. Genome-wide association analysis links multiple psychiatric liability genes to oscillatory brain activity Human brain mapping 2018;39 (11):4183-4195 [PubMed]
  • Zilhão N. R., Abdellaoui A., Smit D. J. A., Cath D. C., Hottenga J. J., Boomsma D. I. Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and depression linked to OCD Polygenic prediction of obsessive compulsive symptoms Molecular psychiatry 2018;23 (2):168-169 [PubMed]


  • Bangel Katrin A., van Buschbach Susanne, Smit Dirk J. A., Mazaheri Ali, Olff Miranda Aberrant brain response after auditory deviance in PTSD compared to trauma controls: An EEG study Scientific reports 2017;7 (1):16596 [PubMed]
  • Smit Dirk J. A., Anokhin Andrey P. Development and genetics of brain temporal stability related to attention problems in adolescent twins International journal of psychophysiology 2017;115:86-97 [PubMed]
  • Demuru M., Gouw A. A., Hillebrand A., Stam C. J., van Dijk B. W., Scheltens P., Tijms B. M., Konijnenberg E., ten Kate M., den Braber A., Smit D. J. A., Boomsma D. I., Visser P. J. Functional and effective whole brain connectivity using magnetoencephalography to identify monozygotic twin pairs Scientific reports 2017;7 (1):9685 [PubMed]
  • Zilhao N. R., Olthof M. C., Smit D. J. A., Cath D. C., Ligthart L., Mathews C. A., Delucchi K., Boomsma D. I., Dolan C. V. Heritability of tic disorders: a twin-family study Psychological medicine 2017;47 (6):1085-1096 [PubMed]


  • Abdellaoui Abdel, Hottenga Jouke Jan, Xiao Xiangjun, Scheet Paul, Ehli Erik A., Davies Gareth E., Hudziak James J., Smit Dirk J.A., Bartels Meike, Willemsen Gonneke, Brooks Andrew, Sullivan Patrick F., Smit Johannes H., De Geus Eco J., Penninx Brenda W.J.H., Boomsma Dorret I. Association between autozygosity and major depression: Stratification due to religious assortment Behavior genetics 2013;43 (6):455-467 [PubMed]


  • Vink Jacqueline M., Bartels Meike, van Beijsterveldt Toos C.E.M., van Dongen Jenny, van Beek Jenny H.D.A., Distel Marijn A., de Moor Marleen H.M., Smit Dirk J.A., Minica Camelia C., Ligthart Lannie, Geels Lot M., Abdellaoui Abdel, Middeldorp Christel M., Hottenga Jouke Jan, Willemsen Gonneke, de Geus Eco J.C., Boomsma Dorret I. Sex Differences in Genetic Architecture of Complex Phenotypes? PLoS ONE 2012;7 (12) [PubMed]


We zetten ons in om ons ziekenhuis veilig te houden tijdens de coronacrisis.

Lees deze extra maatregelen goed door voordat u een van onze locaties bezoekt: